Káma-Kapúska! Making Marks in Indian Country, 1833–34


Wied’s Journal Pages and A Sample Exhibition

Work with Maximilian zu Wied-Neuwied’s journals and the associated North American materials of Karl Bodmer is possible due to the extensive curatorial research and publishing projects of the Joslyn Art Museum, Omaha, the institutional keeper of the original materials.

Translations of the journals used for this project come from

Maximilian zu Wied-Neuwied, The North American Journals of Prince Maximilian of Wied, ed. Stephen S. Witte and Marsha V. Gallagher, vols. 1–3 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press with the Joslyn Art Museum, 2008–12).

Maximilian zu Wied-Neuwied, Travels in North America, 1832–1834: A Concise Edition of the Journals of Prince Maximilian of Wied, ed. Marsha V. Gallagher (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2017).

Critical sources on Bodmer’s sketches, notebooks, watercolors, and prints include

John C. Ewers, et al., Views of a Vanishing Frontier (Omaha, NE: Joslyn Art Museum, 1984).

Marsha V. Gallagher and David C. Hunt, eds., Karl Bodmer’s America (Omaha: Joslyn Art Museum and University of Nebraska Press, 1984).

Brandon K. Ruud, ed., Karl Bodmer’s North American Prints (Omaha, NE: Joslyn Museum of Art, 2004).

W. Raymond Wood, Joseph C. Porter, and David C. Hunt, Karl Bodmer’s Studio Art: The Newberry Library Bodmer Collection (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2002).

Numak'aki Persons and Themes

The sources for this project’s descriptions of Native and fort life in the 1830s are many and vast.‍[1] While individual sources are given in the endnotes, the following, taken as a whole, are the most critical to what is presented.

Martha Warren Beckwith, trans., Myths and Hunting Stories of the Mandan and Hidatsa Sioux (Poughkeepsie, NY: Vassar College, 1930).

Alfred W. Bowers, “A History of the Mandan and Hidatsa” (PhD diss., University of Chicago, 1948).

Elizabeth A. Fenn, Encounters at the Heart of the World: A History of the Mandan People (New York: Hill and Wang, 2014).

James H. Howard, “Butterfly’s Mandan Winter Count: 1833–1876,” Ethnohistory 7, no. 1 (Winter 1960): 28–43.

Maxidiwiac [also written as Waheenee-wea or Mahidiweash], Waheenee: An Indian Girl’s Story Told by Herself to Gilbert L. Wilson (1927; repr. Lincoln, NE: Bison Books, 1981).

panaritisp, “The Last Mandan: Edwin Benson Interview,” parts 1–6, and “The Last Mandan: Edwin Benson Interview Enhanced,” parts 1–6, https://www.youtube.com/user/panaritisp/videos.

Tracy Potter, Sheheke, Mandan Indian Diplomat: The Story of White Coyote, Thomas Jefferson, and Lewis and Clark (Helena, MT: Farcountry Press, 2003).

Tsakákasaki (also Edward Goodbird), Goodbird the Indian: His Story (1914; repr. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 1985).

Gilbert L. and Frederick N. Wilson Papers, 1894–1936, Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, MN.

My language work is based on “A Mandan Dictionary,” compiled by Robert Charles Hollow Jr. for his doctoral work at the University of California Berkeley in 1970.‍[2]

Language sources from the past are not equivalent to those of today, as all living languages continue to change over time. For contemporary Nú'eta, see the MHA (Mandan-Hidatsa-Arikara) Language Project at http://www.mandanlanguage.org/.

All of the above sources relied on MHA community members at Fort Berthold, North Dakota, who, like Mató-Tópe and Dipäuch in the early 1830s, spent many hours sharing knowledge with outsiders. The names of these generous community members as recorded in the above sources are as follows:


  • Arrowhead Earring [Numak'aki]
  • Atátic or Soft White Corn [Minitari]
  • Beaver [Numak'aki]
  • Big Cloud [Minitari]
  • Black-Hawk [Minitari]
  • Black Chest [Numak'aki]
  • Burdash, Pete [Dakota-Sahnish]
  • Bush [unknown]
  • Butterfly [Minitari]
  • (Mrs.) Butterfly or Good Voice [Minitari]
  • Calf Woman or Nikasiwihe [Numak'aki]
  • Foolish Woman [Numak'aki]
  • Chief [Numak'aki]
  • Crow’s Heart [Numak'aki]
  • Dry Tears or Dry Eyes [Minitari]
  • I-tá-mi-di-í-a-ha-má-tus [Minitari]
  • Fire [Numak'aki, raised Ha-Numak]
  • First Sprout [Numak'aki]
  • Foolish Woman [Numak'aki]
  • (Mrs.) Foolish Woman or Maksipka [Numak'aki]
  • Goodbird, Edward, or Tsakákasaki [Minitari]
  • (Mrs.) Goodbird, Edward [Dakota?]
  • Good Furred Robe [Numak'aki]
  • Good Road or Good-Is-His-Way [Minitari]
  • Hairy Coat [Minitari]
  • Hides-and-Eats [ha numák captive, raised as Numak'aki]
  • Iron Eye or Bear-Not-Welcome [Numak'aki]
  • Lance Owner [Numak'aki]
  • Leader [Minitari]
  • Lean Bear [Numak'aki]
  • Little Bear [unknown]
  • (Mrs.) Little Bear [unknown]
  • Lone Fights [unknown]
  • Long-Tail [Numak'aki]
  • Mahídiwiac [Minitari]
  • Many Women [Minitari]
  • Old Yellow Elk or I-tsi-di-sí-di=i-tá-kas(h) [Minitari]
  • Packs Wolf [Minitari]
  • Painted Up [Numak'aki]
  • Poor Wolf, also known as Lean Wolf [Minitari]
  • Red Stone [Minitari]
  • Red Stone [Numak'aki]
  • Red White Buffalo [Numak'aki]
  • Short Bull [Numak'aki]
  • Sioux-Woman or Ha-mi-he [Numak'aki]
  • Small Ankle [Minitari]
  • Son-of-a-Star [Minitari]
  • Tseca Matseítsi [Minitari]
  • White Bear Woman [unknown]
  • Wolf Ghost [Minitari]
  • Wounded Face [Numak'aki]
  • (Mrs.) Wounded Face [Numak'aki]
  • (Mrs.) Young Bear, Louella Benson [Numak'aki]

1929–33 / 1947

  • (Mrs.) Baker, Owen [Numak'aki]
  • Bear on the Flat [Numak'aki]
  • Bears Arm [Minitari]
  • Benson, Ben [Numak'aki]
  • Black Chest [Numak'aki]
  • Calf Woman or Nikasiwihe [Numak'aki]
  • Crow’s Heart [Numak'aki]
  • Front Woman [Numak'aki]
  • (Mrs.) Good Bear [Numak'aki]
  • Little Owl [Numak'aki]
  • Scattered Corn Woman or Mópinte [Numak'aki]
  • Tseca Matseítsi [Minitari]
  • White Calf [Numak'aki]
  • (Mrs.) White Duck [Minitari]


  • Benson, Blanche [unknown]
  • Crow’s Breast, Burr [unknown]
  • Eagle, Annie [unknown]
  • Stone, John [unknown]
  • (Mrs.) Grinnell, Mattie Nagel [Numak'aki]
  • Little Owl, Albert [unknown]
  • Little Owl, Ralph [unknown]
  • Otter Sage [unknown]

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