Style Sheet

1. Preferred Manuals and Dictionaries

For general style issues (documentation, punctuation, capitalization, abbreviations, etc.), conform to Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed. (CMS).

For place names, follow Merriam-Webster’s Geographical Dictionary, 3rd ed.

For names and dates of artists, please use the Union List of Artists’ Names (ULAN).

For formatting links in your text, please use Word’s hyperlink function (in the “Insert” menu, choose “hyperlink” and follow instructions).

2. Foreign Languages

In the text, give only the translations of foreign-language quotations and in the notes provide the original text and documentation for translations used. If most translations are by the author, put an explanatory note at the beginning of the endnotes to the effect that all translations are by the author unless otherwise indicated.

For the capitalization of foreign titles of books, articles, etc., use “sentence style”: capitalize the first word of the title and of the subtitle, except for German titles in which the first word and all nouns are capitalized. For the capitalization of names of conferences, institutions, museums, etc., capitalize headline style as one would in English (e.g., Musée Nationale des Beaux-Arts).

3. Dates and Numbers

American style: January 1, 2001.

Write out the numbers of centuries, e.g., nineteenth century.

4. References

All notes are to be in the form of endnotes and “embedded” rather than submitted as a separate file.

Titles of books, journals, paintings, sculptures, and published theses and dissertations are to be in italics, not underlined, and

a. capitalized headline style if in English,
b. capitalized sentence style if in a foreign language

Titles of articles in a journal and unpublished theses and dissertations are to be in roman, in quotation marks, not underlined, and

a. capitalized headline style if in English,
b. capitalized sentence style if in foreign language

Exhibition catalogues are treated as books. Following are some sample entries:

Robert Rosenblum, Mary Anne Stevens, and Ann Dumas, Art at the Crossroads, exh. cat. (New York: Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, 2000), 123.

Paul Atterbury, ed., A. W. N. Pugin: Master of Gothic Revival, exh. cat. New York: Bard Graduate Center for Studies in the Decorative Arts (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995), 27.

Pierre Miquel and others, Narcisse Díaz de la Peña, 1807–1876, exh. cat. (Paris: Pavillon des Arts, 1968), 35.

For magazines and periodicals that the general public buys by subscription or from a magazine stand or newspaper stand, such as Ladies Home Journal, or L’Illustration (as opposed to a peer-reviewed/academic journal such as the Art Bulletin), the form of documentation is:

Mary Author, “Women Artists and the Cello,” Revue de la Musique, March 24, 2000, 44.

(There are no parentheses around the date as it is an essential part of the documentation. A comma rather than a colon precedes the page number.)

Documentation for a newspaper is the same, (except the page number is not required).

For an article in an online journal, follow the CMS guidelines and include a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) if the journal lists one. According to the CMS, “A DOI is a permanent ID that, when appended to in the address bar of an Internet browser, leads directly to the source.” For example, Gueorgi Kossinets and Duncan J. Watts, “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network,” American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 411, doi:10.1086/599247. Only if no DOI is available, use a URL and include an access date. Hyperlink the URL by using Microsoft Word’s hyperlink function (in the “Insert” menu, choose “hyperlink” and follow instructions).

Do not use p. and pp. for page references. Convert ampersand to “and” but retain numerals in titles (e.g., 19th-Century Art).

Use a full reference the first time a work is cited, following the CMS. Thereafter, abbreviate the reference to author’s last name(s), short title, page. You may use Ibid., where appropriate, even after a short title.

A short reference, for example, might look like:
Smith, Expressionism, 87, for a book, or
Doe, "Realism in Context," 61, for an article.

5. Links, hyperlinks, and DOIs

Linking to different sites: websites, blogs, journal articles, books, etc.

Authors should link to websites, blogs, and journal articles when digital sources or digital versions of print sources were consulted. According to CMS guidelines, the citation must indicate the type of source (either the print book or a digital copy of the book), which the author used for research. However, if an author cites a digital version of a book or journal also available in print, they must cite both the digital and print versions.

Linking to subscription sites

Authors may cite online versions of encyclopedias, such as Grove and Oxford, even if they are subscription sites.

Authors may link to paywall/subscription sites, if that is what they used for their research, but they must indicate in parentheses at the end of their citation [login required] as a courtesy to readers.

For example:

Karal Ann Marling, “Portrait of the Artist as a Young Woman: Miss Dora Wheeler,” Bulletin of the Cleveland Museum of Art 65, no. 2 (February 1978): 47, [login required].

Authors are encouraged to link to abstracts on paywall/subscription sites so as to avoid violating copyright or breaking through paywalls.

For example: Laurinda S. Dixon and Petra ten-Doesschate Chu, “An Iconographical Riddle: Gerbrandt van den Eeckhout’s Royal Repast in the Liechtenstein Princely Collections,” Art Bulletin 71, no. 4 (December 1989): 610–27,

Authors should not use any link to their institution’s website or portal for any material that is available on a more accessible database, such as JSTOR.

Linking to DOIs

Authors should link to DOIs (Digital Object Identifiers, which provide persistent links to articles) when available. This website allows you to find DOIs for articles. DOIs come at the end of a citation.

For example:

John Moran, “Studio-Life in New York,” Art Journal, December 1879, 344, doi:10.2307/20569433.

Authors may not link to images because these links are usually fragile.

6. Formatting when Copying Text

You can avoid formatting problems (like tables that you can’t get rid of) when cutting and pasting from other documents or from the Internet, by doing the following:

Copy the text from its source.

In your document, go to Edit→Paste Special→Unformatted Text→OK.

The copied material will go into your document without formatting and you can then format it in your document according to the style you are using. Note: any italic, bold, or other formatting in the original will not be copied into your document.

7. Illustrations

Illustration references in the text should appear as: (fig. 0) or (figs. 0, 0).

Submit a list of illustrations in the following format:

Fig. 0, Artist, Title of Work (in italics, if appropriate), date. Medium [no dimensions]. Collection, City (in English). Photography credit.

If an artwork is in the public domain, indicate this status with a statement after the collection/location information:

Fig. 0, Artist, Title of Work (in italics, if appropriate), date. Medium [no dimensions]. Collection, City (in English). Artwork in the public domain; photograph (or image) courtesy of name of individual, museum, gallery, or other institution.


Fig. 0, Artist, Title of Work (in italics, if appropriate), date. Medium [no dimensions]. Collection, City (in English). Artwork in the public domain; available from: name of website and link to URL (if available).

While the majority of the works of art published in Nineteenth-Century Art Worldwide are in the public domain, the list of illustrations must differentiate between a copyright in an artwork and a copyright in a photograph (or image) of an artwork that may or may not be in the public domain.

If an image is an illustration from a book, use the following format:

Fig. 0, Artist (if available), Title of Work, Title of Book [in italics] (Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Date of Publication of volume in which the work appears), # (of volume): page number (or n.p. if there is no page number).

Titles in foreign languages should be translated. Put only the original title in italics as exemplified here:

Fig. 6, Antoine-Valentin Jumel de Noireterre, Bataille de Balaklava, 35 octobre 1854 (Battle of Balaklava, October 35, 1854), 1859.

If an artwork has two makers, include the roles of each in parentheses after the name as exemplified here:

Fig. 6, Henry Louis Stephens (illustrator) and James Queen (lithographer), The Slave in 1863 (Journey of a Slave from the Plantation to the Battlefield), 1863. Chromolithographs. Published by William Allen Stephens, Philadelphia. Harvard Art Museums/Fogg Museum, On loan from Special Collections, Fine Arts Library, Harvard College Library, Cambridge (MA), 120.1976.23-34. Photo: Imaging Department © President and Fellows of Harvard College.

NOTE: If all images are from one source, that source may be indicated at the beginning of the list of figures. For example: All photographs provided courtesy of the Museum of Fine Arts.

For publication, all images must be submitted digitally in jpg or png format (for line or text based images) or gif (for animation). They should be no larger than 650 pixels x 650 pixels in size (about 6.5" x 6.5") and no smaller than 150 x 150 pixels (about 2" x 2"). If scanned, resolution of images should be 300 ppi (pixels per inch). Filenames are to be no longer than 8 characters (excluding the extension), all lowercase letters, and only letters or numerals (no spaces, capital letters, dashes) and the extension should indicate the type of image file. For example: figure01.jpg or figure01.png or figure01.gif. Note: Include the extra “0” in the numbering of the file names for figures 1 to 9 so that they appear in the correct, ascending numerical order.

If authors are unfamiliar with resizing the digital images to meet the requirements of the journal’s Style Sheet, visit or